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He was always malevolent. Ek was the god of war, human sacrifice, and violent death. In addition to these, there were patron gods, 13 of the upper world and nine of the lower, plus numerous calendar gods who posed for glyphs.
Other deities, such as Kukulcan and Chac Mool, came into the line-up as the society changed in Post Classic times. To the common man, who lives or dies by the cycle of rain and drought, Chac remains the god most frequently involved in daily life.
Remember Me. There were a lot of Mayan gods and goddesses in the pantheon, although some gods were the most powerful. For instance, one of the most powerful Mayan gods was Chac who was the god of rain, thunder, fertility, and agriculture.
Further, there was the Mayan maize god called Yumil Kaxob who was equally important considering that maize was the staple grain of the Mayans.
Various kinds of sacrifice, including human sacrifice, were offered for all these gods. Priests had very important function in Mayan religion since they were considered intermediaries between Mayan gods and goddesses and the common people.
Religious festivals and rituals were performed by the priests who were often dressed as gods. The ritual of human sacrifice was also performed by Mayan priests.
Thus the central role of priests in Mayan religion raised their status which was more or less equal to that of the nobility. Religious symbolism was quite important in Mayan religion just like the religions of other Mesoamerican civilisations.
Mayans Gods and goddesses were often represented in forms that symbolised their powers. For instance, in order to symbolise the god of rain Chac, artistic representations show him having amphibian features and tears coming out of his eyes.
Interestingly enough, much like her aforementioned male-counterpart Itzamna , Ix Chel, in the mythical narrative, was known for her dual aspect.
For example, as Goddess I, she was represented as a young and beautiful seductress who espouses fertility, marriage, and love.
On the other hand, as Goddess O, Ix Chel or a deity who was similar to Ix Chel was represented as a wizened old woman who had the power to both create and destroy the earth.
Interestingly enough, in some cases, given his association to an element of the sky, the Mayan god is also regarded as an aspect of Itzamna , the aforementioned ruler of heavens.
To that end, in one mythical narrative, Ix Chel , the moon goddess, impresses him by wearing a fine woven dress, and the two finally become lovers although their relationship later turns tumultuous.
As for depictions, Kinich Ahau, befitting his regal status, was often represented with a hooked nose, squared large eyes, and even a beard in few drawings.
And like other comparable Mayan gods, he was also represented differently or in a dual manner in some codices, like an old man with crooked teeth in the Madrid Codex.
Incredibly enough, he was also associated with the jaguar , as it was believed that the sun god transformed into the feline predator during the night.
Moreover, Kinich Ahau was further venerated as the patron god of the day-unit since he embodied the sun and the Number Four. Chaac Chac or Chaakh, also known as God B was the Mayan deity of rain — thus making him a very important deity in the agricultural civilization of the Maya.
In addition, he was also venerated as the god of thunder and storms — with one particular myth-based motif suggesting how he struck the clouds with jade axes and even snakes to bring down the rain.
Such actions nourished the various crops especially the maize, which is often ascribed as a gift of Chaac to the Maya people after he discovered the seedling inside the rock and fostered the natural cycle of life in terms of regeneration.
In some narratives, he is presented as the brother to the sun god Kinich Ahau. And while these brothers were close, Chaac fell for the beautiful wife of Kinich Ahau possibly Ix Chel and consequently suffered punishment for his immoral affair.
Interestingly enough, in spite of being the deity of rain, Chaac was believed to dwell not in the skies but deep within the caves and cenotes — signifying the sources of water.
Chac is closely identified with war and human sacrifice. The primordial couple of Xmucane and Xpiacoc appear in the Popol Vuh as the grandparents of two sets of twins: the older set of 1 Monkey and 1 Howler, and the younger of Blowgunner and Jaguar Sun.
The older pair suffered great losses in their lives and because of that learned to paint and carve, learning the peace of the fields. The younger pair were magicians and hunters, who knew how to hunt for food and understood the violence of the woods.
The two sets of twins were jealous of how Xmucane treated the others and played endless tricks on one another. Eventually, the younger pair won out, turning the older pair into monkeys.
In pity, Xmucane enabled the return of the pipers and singers, the painters and sculptors, so that they live and bring joy to everyone. Kinich Ahau is the Maya sun god, known as Ahau Kin or God G, whose defining characteristics include a "Roman nose" and a large square eye.
In frontal views, Kinich Ahau is cross-eyed and he is often illustrated with a beard, which might be a representation of the rays of the sun.
Other traits associated with Kinich Ahau are his filled incisors, and rope-like elements curling out of the sides of his mouth. Inscribed on his cheek, brow, or another part of his body is the quatrefoil symbol of the sun.
His "Roman nose" has a pair of beads at the very tip. The identification of Kinich Ahau with decapitation and jaguars is common in Maya iconography from the Late Preclassic to Postclassic periods.
Moan Chan is the aged merchant called Moan Chan or "Misty Sky" and God L, who is most often illustrated with a walking stick and a merchant's bundle.
On one vase God L is portrayed with a broad-brimmed hat trimmed with feathers, and a raptor sits on the crown.
His cloak is commonly a black-and-white design of stepped chevrons and rectangles or one made from a jaguar pelt.
Misty Sky is most often illustrated as an ancient man, stooped with age, with a prominent, beaked nose and a sunken, toothless mouth.
Occasionally pictured smoking a cigar, God L is also associated with tobacco, jaguars, and caves.
A god of earthquakes and death who lived in Metnal. He is often depicted as a dancing human skeleton smoking a cigarette. Ek Chuaj, the "black war chief" was the patron god of warriors and merchants.
He was depicted carrying a bag over his shoulder. In art, he was a dark-skinned man with circles around his eyes, a scorpion tail and dangling lower lip.
The three patron deities of the Palenque kingdom, made up of a sea deity with a shell ear, GII a baby lightning god god K , and GIII the jaguar god of fire , also patron of the number seven.
A feathered snake god and creator. The depiction of the feathered serpent deity is present in other cultures of Mesoamerica. They were defeated by the latter's sons the Hero Twins.
One of the two stepbrothers of the Hero Twins , one of the Howler Monkey Gods and patron of the arts. Title attested for Itzamna, Uaxac Yol, and Amaite Ku; family name; probably not meaning "food", but "powerful".Mayan Gods. The Mayan people had an extensive pantheon of deities since they had a polytheistic belief system. The religion was based on a number of creation mythologies which described how humans came into being, how the world and the cosmos was created and what were the main tasks of different gods. 7/27/ · However, scholars have deciphered enough of the Mayan codices and hieroglyphics to cite the major Mayan gods. These gods are listed below, but the list is not comprehensive by any means. Itzamna. Itzamna is a creator god, one of the gods involved in creating human beings and father of the Bacabs, who upheld the corners of the world. The Mayan vision of the celestial vault was that it was supported by 4 gods called Bacabés. These 4 gods were related to the four cardinal points were next to them was a Sacred Ceiba, a tree that had given sustenance to the first men. Dual characteristics of the Mayan gods.